IMG_3635The work performed to develop, test and implement any software package is a process flow. Not every team or organization will follow the same flow. Many factors can influence the flow of the work in order to deliver maximum value. Kanban is a popular technique to help a team or organization visualize, control and improve the flow of work so that more value is delivered. Kanban is especially valuable because the visualization exposes bottlenecks and constraints. When applying Kanban, one of the values implicit is adopting wait and see approach to making process changes.  In Kanban, you only make changes when data exposes a constraint or bottleneck. The determination of whether any flow problem is a constraint or bottleneck will affect how they are solved. While similar, bottlenecks and constraints are different and these differences drive how we address them.

A bottleneck is a resource that has a capacity that is less to demand placed on that resource while a constraint is a physical factor that limits performance. Applied to the typical software development or enhancement project, resources typically reflect the amount of effort people can apply. A tester with a backlog of 100 hours of testing to perform would be a bottleneck.  In the same development environment, an example of a constraint would be if the organization had one system testing environment and two teams wanted to use that at the same time and could not due to systemic conflicts. The limitations in the environment would be a constraint. Bottlenecks can be solved by changing or adding resources while constraints require changing the environment as part of changing resources.

Our poor tester is saddled with a backlog of 100 hours of testing.  The backlog reflects a work in progress that is sitting, waiting to be tested to determine whether the code works and meets business requirements. Defects in that code can potentially impact other work that is currently waiting to be tested, currently being coded or work that has previously tested, therefore waiting to test delays feedback.  Two simple changes can be made to improve flow.  The first is slow the amount of work coming to the tester so that work gets to the tester just when it can be tested (reduce the amount of code being written or changed) or increase the number of testers (real or virtual). To remove the bottleneck the organization could reduce the amount of work that needs to be tested or increase the capacity of testing by adding tester. Bottlenecks can be solved by adding, rearranging or reducing resources used in the overall process without changing the environment..

In the article Kanban: Process Improvement and Bottlenecks we used the metaphor of water pouring from a bottle to visualize bottlenecks.  The neck of the bottle is a constraint. If the goal was to improve flow would need limit the amount of water entering the neck of the bottle or remove the constriction.  Adding more neck to the bottle would not affect the flow positively.  In our testing environment example, in order to improve the flow and reduce waiting we would either have to plan project work better so that only one group wanted to use the environment at a time or make a physical change to the test architecture by adding a second (or perhaps more) system test environment.  In order to solve constraints the environment must be changed to solve the flow issue (other resources may also be changed in addition).

Note – Either case requires an overall systems view of the development and enhancement process used by the organization or team. This ensures that removing one constraint or bottleneck just doesn’t create another!

The difference between bottlenecks and constraints may seem to be overly nuanced however understanding that a constraint can be addressed by adjusting resources whereas a bottleneck will require physical changes to the environment is critical to ensuring effective change.