Most Agile frameworks are built on the basis empirical models of process control. These, in turn, are based on periodic observation and adaptation. Each instantiation of the process may be different due to the circumstances any specific team faces. The empirical mode is often compared to the defined process approach, which posits a standard process for all teams that evolves based on the needs of the collective whole rather than a team or small group of teams. Scaled Agile Framework Enterprise (SAFe) program increments are no different. Program increments are similar to a large Scrum sprint beginning with planning and completing with a demonstration and retrospective, known as inspect and adapt. The empirical process of inspect and adapt is one of the core principles in SAFe. At the team level, each sprint culminates with the classic demonstration and retrospective. The same type of discipline is leveraged for program increments. PI level inspect and adapt is composed of three components:

  1. The teams involved in the program increment demonstrate the system with the new features, architectural changes and non-functional requirements that have been completed during the PI. The goal of the demonstration is to evoke feedback based on the overall current status of the overall application from the Agile release train (ART) stakeholders.
  2. Metrics Review. Program metrics are reviewed and discussed as a team. The goal of the metrics review and the ensuing discussion is to ensure that everyone involved understands performance based on tactical experience and measured performance. The combination of experience and measurement helps the team see through their individual cognitive biases.
  3. Retrospective/Problem Solving Workshop. The problem solving workshop provides a platform for the PI participants to first identify the issues experienced during the increment, then to identify which of those that they would like to solve and finally to develop a corrective action plan. SAFe recommends that a structured, root cause analysis is used to analyze the issue and define a corrective action plan (the preferred method uses the “five whys” and Ishikawa Diagrams/Fishbone diagrams – both of these are tried and true techniques used in the quality and process improvement arena). The goal of the process is to generate tangible improvement actions that can be taken into the release planning event for the next program increment.

The inspect and adapt process in SAFe is a means of generating feedback on the product that is being developed and the processes being used to do the work. Feedback is a means of ensuring the Agile release train stays on track. Inspect and Adapt provide feedback so that changes can be made the trajectory of the product being build and to make changes in how work is being done.