The Definition of Done (DoD) is an important technique for increasing the operational effectiveness of team-level Agile. The DoD provides a team with a set of criteria that they can use to plan and bound their work. As Agile is scaled up to deliver larger, more integrated solutions the question that is often asked is whether the concept of the DoD can be applied. And if it is applied, does the application require another layer of done (more complexity)?
The answer to the first question is simple and straightforward. If the question is whether the Definition of Done technique can be used as Agile projects are scaled, then the answer is an unequivocal ‘yes’. In preparation for this essay I surveyed a few dozen practitioners and coaches on the topic to ensure that my use of the technique at scale wasn’t extraordinary. To a person, they all used the technique in some form. Mario Lucero, an Agile Coach in Chile, (interviewed on SPaMCAST 334) said it succinctly, “No, the use of Definition of Done doesn’t depend on how large is the project.”
While everyone agreed that the DoD makes sense in a scaled Agile environment, there is far less consensus on how to apply the technique. The divergence of opinion and practice centered on whether or not the teams working together continually integrated their code as part of their build management process. There are two different camps. The first camp typically finds themselves in organizations that integrated functions either as a final step in a sprint, performed integration as a separate function outside of development or as a separate hardening sprint. This camp generally feels that to apply the Definition of Done requires a separate DoD specifically for integration. This DoD would include requirements for integrating functions, testing integration and architectural requirements that span teams. The second camp of respondent finds themselves in environments where continuous integration is performed. In this scenario each respondent either added integration criteria in the team DoD or did nothing at all. The primary difference boiled down to whether the team members were responsible for making sure their code integrated with the overall system or whether someone else (real or perceived) was responsible.
In practice the way that DoD is practiced includes a bit of the infamous “it depends” magic. During our discussion on the topic, Luc Bourgault from Wolters Kluwer stated, “in a perfect world the definition should be same, but I think we should be accept differences when it makes sense.” Pradeep Chennavajhula, Senior Global VP at QAI, made three points:
- Principles/characteristics of Definition of done do not change by size of the project.
- However, the considerations and detail will be certainly impacted.
- This may however, create a perception that Definition of Done varies by size of project.
The Definition of Done is useful for all Agile work whether a single team or a large scaled effort. However, how you have organized your Agile effort will have more of a potential impact on your approach.