The idea of a Scrum of Scrums (SoS) is fairly simple. A bunch of people get together on periodic basis to coordinate the work their team is doing with other teams. The SoS helps everyone involved work together in order to deliver the maximum value. The SoS typically use the daily stand-up or scrum as a model. The simplicity of the logistics of the SoS and the overall utility often leads to tinkering with the format to address other organizational needs. Four very typical additions include: (more…)
November 3, 2016
Leave a Comment
August 9, 2016
I recently got a question from a long-time reader and listener. I have removed the name to ensure confidentiality.
- The person who asked the question is an experienced Agile leader.
- The team is not all technically-equal full-stack developers, some developers work on UI stories and others work on backend stories.
- The team has 8-10 people.
- During story grooming/sizing, the entire team does not participate equally to offer up their points. UI developers participate on UI stories and are reluctant to chime in on backend work, and vice-versa.
- Scrum seeks to involve the entire team. How can I get everyone involved (or should I)?
July 9, 2016
This week we begin getting into the proverbial weeds of Extreme Programming by tackling chapters six and seven in Kent Beck’s Extreme Programing Explained, Second Edition (2005). Chapters six and seven explore the practices that operationalize the values and practices we have explored in previous installments. (more…)
May 19, 2016
Leave a Comment
The simple cumulative flow diagram (CFD) used in Metrics: Cumulative Flow Diagrams – Basics and in more complex versions provide a basis for interpreting the flow of work through a process. A CFD can help everyone from team members to program managers to gain insight into issues, cycle time and likely completion dates. Learning to read a CFD will provide a powerful tool to spot issues that a team, teams or program may be facing. But to get the most value a practitioner needs to decide on granularity, a unit of measure, and time frame needed to make decisions. (more…)
May 7, 2016
Every moon, planet, and sun in the universe pulls on every other moon, planet and sun; the size and distance between the objects impact the degree of influence. Each object exerts a gravitational pull, the stronger the pull the bigger and deeper the pull, a gravity well. The organizational influence of that any individuals exerts is something akin to a gravitational pull. Each person is a gravity well and their pull influences those around them. How can we map the influence of a coach? The answer depends on whether we are talking about the influence on how work is being done or the influence on organizational goals. Hierarchically, coaches fit between IT management and the business and Scrum teams. Coaches exert influence on IT and business management who control organizational goals. They influence the Scrum teams who control how work is done. The amount of influence a coach exerts depends on how they are perceived within the organization. Coaches are part of the Agile gravity well between teams and management, drawing them both closer to the values and principles of Agile. (more…)
April 23, 2016
The daily stand-up meeting is the easiest Agile practice to adopt and the easiest to get wrong. In order to get it right, we need to understand the basic process and the most common variants. These include interacting with task lists/boards and distributed team members. The basic process is blindingly simple.
- The team gathers on a daily basis.
- Each team member answers three basic questions:
- What tasks did I complete since the last meeting;
- What tasks do I intend to complete before the next meeting, and
- What are the issues blocking my progress.
- The meeting ends, team members return to work OR discuss other items.
March 3, 2016
Leave a Comment
Much of the work to coordinate and synchronize goals happens during planning. As Mike Cohn described with the metaphor of the Agile planning onion, Agile planning is not a one-time event nor are planning activities confined to the beginning of an increment or a sprint. However, delivering work using Agile is not just a big ball of planning. Goal coordination and synchronization activities need to happen outside of planning activities. Several non-planning Agile techniques are useful for ensuring coordination. The degree of usefulness is a function of size, complexity and the Agile maturity of those involved. The techniques include:
Test First Development (TFD) in all of its forms (including Test Driven Development, Behavior Driven Development, and Acceptance Test Driven Development) begins by establishing how the developers will prove the work they are planning to deliver. Expressing how the solution will be proved before writing the first line of code anchors the functionality being delivered to the effort’s goals. All of the test first development techniques can be applied to any size project; however, these techniques require teams that have access to the correct tools and have at least a moderate Agile maturity.
Definition of Done provides a team or teams with a set of criteria that they can use to plan and bound their work based on an overarching definition of done. A definition of done that includes integration activities or a check against the increment’s goal is an effective means of keeping goals synchronized. The definition of done is applicable to all efforts regardless of size, albeit as complexity increases this technique becomes even more powerful.
Continuous Builds is a process in which every time code is checked back into the code repository the application or product is built (or compiled). The build is immediately followed by some form of testing to make sure the “build” still works. Continuously building the software ensures that any one team or developer does not go too far off track because the code and testing act as an arbiter that the product works. This technique is applicable to all efforts (Agile or not, big or small); however, I have noticed that the use of continuous builds requires some experience and maturity with Agile.
Scrum of Scrums (SOS) is a mechanism that brings all of the Scrum Masters involved in an effort together to coordinate a group of teams so that they act as a team of teams. The SOS provides a platform for coordinating and synchronizing goals by ensuring teams are aware of what other teams are doing and whether they have had to make adjustments to the goals. An SOS is useful for coordinating efforts of all size; however, as efforts scale past two or three teams other coordination techniques are needed in addition to the SOS.
Demonstrations, also known as demos, are Agile’s mechanism to share what the team has been accomplished. Scaled Agile efforts often have demos at the team level at the end of every sprint, an integrated demo (all teams) and then a larger demo before a release. Demonstrations provide the ultimate proof of what has been built allowing stakeholders to determine whether the effort’s goals have been met. Demos are useful for every Agile effort. Larger efforts will do demos both at the team level and then as a consolidated demo for the overall product.
Dynamic Testing (execution of the code), by definition, generates results that are compared against some expected result (even exploratory testing). Those expected results represent an instantiation of the goals and objectives of the overall effort. Testing, while important, without the structure of test-first development is a very weak tool for coordinating and synchronizing goals. Do not use this technique alone regardless of the size of the effort.
Techniques for synchronizing special types of goals and objectives such as process improvement or technical goals are:
Retrospectives are a platform for teams and teams of teams to examine their performance and to make changes to improve their delivery of value. When an effort or organization has productivity, quality, and/or efficiency goals, retrospectives (using techniques such as the 6 Thinking Hats) are highly effective. The retrospective provides a platform to share the objectives and then to synchronize on the steps needed to meet those goals and objectives.
Common Architectures and Standards are typically an instantiation of the technical goals and objectives of the organization. Efforts of all size can use a set of standards or a published architecture to effectively coordinate activity. Examples of using an emergent architecture to provide guidance can be seen in the SAFe concept of the architectural runway. The runway is “built” just ahead of the need of the teams generating the functionality that will leverage that architecture.
The effectively coordinating and synchronizing goals is a requirement for any effort, if the effort is going to deliver value efficiently. Agile efforts often use many of these techniques in combination. Each technique interlocks and overlaps with other techniques so that an environment is created that supports team’s ability to self-organize and self-manage. The number techniques and how strenuously they need to be pursued is a function of how many teams are involved, Agile maturity and complexity. Conceptually an effort with two collocated teams and simple business problem to solve will need less goal coordination than an effort with many teams that are spread across the globe. The one absolute when it comes to goals and teams is coordination is always required.