Making sure external risks are addressed in an Agile effort, or any effort for that matter begins with making sure that at least a basic risk management approach is in place. If a basic risk management approach is in place we can integrate the concept of external risks. Everyone involved should understand the basics of the risk management process being leveraged on the effort. All risk management processes need to identify who is responsible and how the process fits into the value delivery flow. Specifically, incorporating the idea of external risks into the process is typically more urgent as the scale and duration of the effort increases if for no other reason than longer efforts are exposed to the trials and tribulations of the outside world longer than small efforts. The size of the effort affects two main variables used to scale Agile risk management. The larger the effort the greater the need for the people involved with the effort to define who is responsible for risk management and how much process is needed to keep things organized. The size of the effort, while a continuum, will be represented by small efforts (one team and a few iterations or sprints) and large efforts (over 75 participants with at least 6 iterations or sprints) for illustration. (more…)
September 15, 2016
March 24, 2016
One of my children owned a (Russian nesting doll) that is now somewhere in our attic. I was always struck how one piece fit within the other and how getting the assembly out of order generated a mess. I think I learned more from the toy than my children did. The matryoshka doll is a wonderful metaphor for models, frameworks, and methodologies. A model represents the outside shell into which a framework fits followed by the next doll representing a methodology placed inside the framework. Like models, frameworks, and methodologies, each individual doll is unique, but they are related to the whole group of dolls. (more…)
March 3, 2016
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Much of the work to coordinate and synchronize goals happens during planning. As Mike Cohn described with the metaphor of the Agile planning onion, Agile planning is not a one-time event nor are planning activities confined to the beginning of an increment or a sprint. However, delivering work using Agile is not just a big ball of planning. Goal coordination and synchronization activities need to happen outside of planning activities. Several non-planning Agile techniques are useful for ensuring coordination. The degree of usefulness is a function of size, complexity and the Agile maturity of those involved. The techniques include:
Test First Development (TFD) in all of its forms (including Test Driven Development, Behavior Driven Development, and Acceptance Test Driven Development) begins by establishing how the developers will prove the work they are planning to deliver. Expressing how the solution will be proved before writing the first line of code anchors the functionality being delivered to the effort’s goals. All of the test first development techniques can be applied to any size project; however, these techniques require teams that have access to the correct tools and have at least a moderate Agile maturity.
Definition of Done provides a team or teams with a set of criteria that they can use to plan and bound their work based on an overarching definition of done. A definition of done that includes integration activities or a check against the increment’s goal is an effective means of keeping goals synchronized. The definition of done is applicable to all efforts regardless of size, albeit as complexity increases this technique becomes even more powerful.
Continuous Builds is a process in which every time code is checked back into the code repository the application or product is built (or compiled). The build is immediately followed by some form of testing to make sure the “build” still works. Continuously building the software ensures that any one team or developer does not go too far off track because the code and testing act as an arbiter that the product works. This technique is applicable to all efforts (Agile or not, big or small); however, I have noticed that the use of continuous builds requires some experience and maturity with Agile.
Scrum of Scrums (SOS) is a mechanism that brings all of the Scrum Masters involved in an effort together to coordinate a group of teams so that they act as a team of teams. The SOS provides a platform for coordinating and synchronizing goals by ensuring teams are aware of what other teams are doing and whether they have had to make adjustments to the goals. An SOS is useful for coordinating efforts of all size; however, as efforts scale past two or three teams other coordination techniques are needed in addition to the SOS.
Demonstrations, also known as demos, are Agile’s mechanism to share what the team has been accomplished. Scaled Agile efforts often have demos at the team level at the end of every sprint, an integrated demo (all teams) and then a larger demo before a release. Demonstrations provide the ultimate proof of what has been built allowing stakeholders to determine whether the effort’s goals have been met. Demos are useful for every Agile effort. Larger efforts will do demos both at the team level and then as a consolidated demo for the overall product.
Dynamic Testing (execution of the code), by definition, generates results that are compared against some expected result (even exploratory testing). Those expected results represent an instantiation of the goals and objectives of the overall effort. Testing, while important, without the structure of test-first development is a very weak tool for coordinating and synchronizing goals. Do not use this technique alone regardless of the size of the effort.
Techniques for synchronizing special types of goals and objectives such as process improvement or technical goals are:
Retrospectives are a platform for teams and teams of teams to examine their performance and to make changes to improve their delivery of value. When an effort or organization has productivity, quality, and/or efficiency goals, retrospectives (using techniques such as the 6 Thinking Hats) are highly effective. The retrospective provides a platform to share the objectives and then to synchronize on the steps needed to meet those goals and objectives.
Common Architectures and Standards are typically an instantiation of the technical goals and objectives of the organization. Efforts of all size can use a set of standards or a published architecture to effectively coordinate activity. Examples of using an emergent architecture to provide guidance can be seen in the SAFe concept of the architectural runway. The runway is “built” just ahead of the need of the teams generating the functionality that will leverage that architecture.
The effectively coordinating and synchronizing goals is a requirement for any effort, if the effort is going to deliver value efficiently. Agile efforts often use many of these techniques in combination. Each technique interlocks and overlaps with other techniques so that an environment is created that supports team’s ability to self-organize and self-manage. The number techniques and how strenuously they need to be pursued is a function of how many teams are involved, Agile maturity and complexity. Conceptually an effort with two collocated teams and simple business problem to solve will need less goal coordination than an effort with many teams that are spread across the globe. The one absolute when it comes to goals and teams is coordination is always required.
October 22, 2015
The Product Owner (PO) role in organizations that are scaling up Agile projects requires not only nuances how the role is applied but also requires refocusing the typical activities in the role (however this does not mean that they don’t they get out of buying pizza or other relevant food occasional). The primary responsibilities of a scaled product owner are: (more…)
October 11, 2015
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I am on vacation for two weeks and could not leave you without some Monday morning mind candy, therefore, we are doing two very special shows this week and next. This week I have included the responses to the “if you could fix any two (or sometimes just one) things” question I ask at the end every interview from the three most downloaded interviews of 2013. The top three and one extra were::
SPaMCAST 224 featured Mike Burrows. Mike focused his wishes on:
- Changes agents need to take their role as change agents seriously.
- Delay is expensive.
SPaMCAST 246 featured Tobias Mayer. Tobias focused his wish on:
- People, not management or consultants, need to own scrum. (One wish was enough for Tobias)
SPaMCAST 270 featured Alan Shalloway. Alan focused his two wishes on:
- Everyone needs to acknowledge there are laws of software development.
- Assuming that everyone involved in delivering software is highly motivated.
And just because I could . . . a bit of lagniappe, SPaMCAST 138 Featured Jo Ann Sweeney. Jo Ann focused her wishes on:
- Reminding the listeners that change often starts before IT starts a project there we need to listen carefully to the stakeholders.
- Project teams should care about end users.
If these excerpts tickled your fancy listen to the whole interview by clicking on the links shown above.
Next week the best excerpts from 2014!
August 22, 2015
In the seventh essay of The Mythical Man-Month, Brooks returns to the topics of organization and communication using story of the Tower of Babel as a metaphor for many of the engineering fiascoes seen in software development. In the story of the Tower of Babel, when communication broke down, coordination failed and the project ground to a halt. As projects become larger and more complex, communication and organization always becomes more difficult and more critical.
The essay Why Did the Tower of Babel Fall? presents three mechanisms to facilitate communication.
- Informal Communication, which includes all of the telephone calls and conversations that occur in and among teams. Healthy teams and teams of teams talk, interact and share information and ideas.
- Meetings are more formal and include reviews, technical briefings, demonstrations, sprint planning and release planning events. Done well formal meetings, whether part of an Agile framework or not, can find problems and share information and knowledge.
- Project Workbooks are the repository of the evolving intellectual property that defines any significant endeavor.
Brooks goes into depth on the definition and structure of the project workbook. While the workbook that Brooks describes is a physical construct we should consider that the idea of workbook is less of a document then a structure for grouping information. All the project documents need to fit into the workbook and be part of the overall structure of project information so that it can be reused and inherited from. The ultimate goal of the workbook is ensure that everyone who needs information has access to the information and gets the information.
Workbook Mechanics: In order to meet the goal of ensuring of everyone access to the information they need, the workbook needs to be maintained and organized. For example, Brooks suggests ordering and numbering all project memorandums (we would call these emails now) so that people can look through the list and actually see if they need information. Brooks points out that as size of the effort, project or program goes up, the complexity of maintaining and indexing the project communications increases in a non-linear fashion. Today’s technical tools like wikis, SharePoint and hypertext markup make curating and sharing information easier than paper and microfiche (if microfiche is before your time, Google it). As a reminder, capturing and reusing IP is required in all types of work. As a coder, it is easy to fall prey to the idea that the code and a functional system is the only documentation required; however, this is false. For most large efforts, capturing decisions, designs, architectures and even the occasional user manual is an option that can be ignored only if you want to court a communication failure. Remember however that over-reliance on documentation is not the goal.
Brooks uses the formula (n2-n)/2, where n is the number of people working on an effort, to define the possible communication interfaces. As the number of people increase the number of interfaces increases very quickly. Organization is a tool to reduce the amount of interfaces. This is one of the reasons why small teams are more effective than large teams. Scaling Agile is often accomplished by assembling teams of small teams. We use the metaphor of trees or flowers are often to describe the visualizations of team of teams. Communications spreading from a central point can look like a tree or flower. Organizations leverage techniques like the specialization and division of labor to reduce the number of communication interfaces.
There is often push back on division of labor and specialization in Agile. This push back is often misplaced. Within a team the concept of T Shaped people, which eschews specialization, increases capabilities; however, teams often specialize thus becoming capability teams. Capability teams often tackle specific types of work more effectively and efficiently by reducing learning curves. Capability teams fit into Brooks’ ideas on organizing to reduce the communication overhead.
Brooks proposes that each grouping of work have six essential needs.
- A Mission,
- A Producer,
- A Technical Director or An Architect,
- A Schedule,
- A Division of Labor, and
- Interface Definitions Among the Parts.
Four of these essentials are easily understood; however, the roles of the producer and technical broke new ground and extended the ideas Brooks began in The Surgical Team. The role of the producer is to establish the team, establish the schedule and continually acquire the resources needed to deliver the project. The role of the producer includes many of the classic project and program management activities, but also much of the outside communication and coordination activities. When small effort with a single team the roles of the producer and technical director can be held by the same person. As efforts become larger and more complex the roles are generally held by separate people. The role of the producer in the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is handled by the Release Train Engineer. The technical director focuses on the design and the technical components (inside focus). In SAFe this role is held by the System Architect.
Brooks leverages the metaphor of the Tower of Babel to focus on the need for communication and coordination. Projects, team and organizations need to take steps to ensure communication happens effectively. Techniques like meetings and project workbooks are merely tools to make sure information is available and organized. Once we have information organization provides a framework to ensure information is communicated effectively. Without communication any significant engineering effort will end up just like the Tower of Babel.
Are there other mechanisms for organization, communication and coordination that have worked for you? Please share and lets discuss!
Previous installments of the Re-read of The Mythical Man-Month
July 30, 2015
At the beginning of most races the starter will say something like, “ready, set go.” At the team-level the concept of ready to develop acts as a filter to determine whether a user story is ready to be passed to the team and taken into a sprint. Ready to develop is often considered as a bookend to the definition of done. As a comparison, the definition of done is applicable both at the team level and at scale when multiple teams are pursuing a common goal. In practice, ready does not scale as easily as done. Ready often requires two set of unique criteria for scaled Agile projects, Ready to Develop and Ready to Go.
The most common set of ready criteria is encapsulated in Ready to Develop. Ready to Develop is used at a team level. A simple set of five criteria are :
- The story is well formed.
- The story fulfills the criteria encompassed by INVEST.
- A story must have acceptance criteria.
- Each story should have any external subject matter experts (not on the team) identified with contact details.
- There are no external dependencies that will prevent the story from being completed.
These five criteria are a great filter for a team to use to determine if the user story they are considering for a sprint can be worked on immediately, or if more grooming is needed. Teams will gravitate toward work they can address now rather than work that is ill defined. The same predilection is true when viewing work being considered by a team of teams (an Agile Release Train in SAFe is an example of a team of teams). However, a team of teams need a higher-level set of criteria to define whether they are ready to begin work. The Ready to Go criteria I most use includes:
- The teams have synchronized their development cadences. Synchronizing team cadences and agreeing on a team of team cadence is a powerful tool to ensure communication and integration.
- A sufficient groomed backlog exists. Identify and prepare enough work (see the team-level criteria) to begin and sustain the teams that are in place, but no more. The backlog does not need to be complete (or completely groomed) before work begins.
- Enough of the architecture and standards have been defined. The SAFe addresses this issue by developing an architectural runway for the developers. Just enough design and architecture is developed ahead of the development teams to provide the guidance they need just before they need it.
- Knowable constraints have been identified. Constraints typically include attributes such as due dates (for example legal mandates can lead to hard due dates that even Agile teams need to accommodate), fixed budget, available capabilities and perhaps physical or technical constraints. Everyone on ALL teams must be aware of the constraints they will have to perform within.
- The required infrastructure has been implemented. Infrastructure is the basic structures, tools and services need to deliver value. If you are delivering software, your infrastructure needs could be as simple as a place to sit and consistent access to electric power or as complex as servers, routers, networks and development tools.
- Teams and roles have been established (and if needed filled). Make sure you have organized and staffed the teams that will be involved in the effort (assuming that you not using standing teams), and identified and trained any ancillary roles (e.g. build master or DevOps team). Organizing and staffing teams on the fly is an accident waiting to happen.
Implementing the concept of Ready to Go for starting scaled Agile project, release or program increment (SAFe construct) has a different goal and therefore different criteria than Ready to Develop. When the starter calls out ready, mentally run through the criteria for whether you are Ready to Go in order to begin work at scale. Once you clear that hurdle you can apply the second set of unique criteria that is Ready to Develop. Using both you will be more apt to sprint from the starting line when it is time to GO.